The American Civil War, also known as the War Between the States, or simply the Civil War in the United States (see naming), was a civil war fought from 1861 to 1865, after seven Southern slave states declared their secession and formed the Confederate States of America(the "Confederacy" or the "South"). The states that remained in the Union were known as the "Union" or the "North". The war had its origin in the fractious issue of slavery, especially the extension of slavery into the western territories.[N 1] Foreign powers did not intervene. After four years of bloody combat that left over 600,000 soldiers dead and destroyed much of the South's infrastructure, the Confederacy collapsed, slavery was abolished, and the difficultReconstruction process of restoring national unity and guaranteeing rights to the freed slaves began.
In the 1860 presidential election, Republicans, led by Abraham Lincoln, opposed the expansion of slavery into United States' territories. Lincoln won, but before his inauguration on March 4, 1861, seven slave states with cotton-based economies formed the Confederacy. The first six to secede had the highest proportions of slaves in their populations, a total of 48.8% for the six. Outgoing Democratic President James Buchanan and the incoming Republicans rejected secession as illegal. Lincoln's inaugural address declared his administration would not initiate civil war. Eight remaining slave states continued to reject calls for secession. Confederate forces seized numerous federal forts within territory claimed by the Confederacy. Apeace conference failed to find a compromise, and both sides prepared for war. The Confederates assumed that European countries were so dependent on "King Cotton" that they would intervene; none did and none recognized the new Confederate States of America.
Hostilities began on April 12, 1861, when Confederate forces fired upon Fort Sumter, a key fort held by Union troops in South Carolina. Lincoln called for each state to provide troops to retake the fort; consequently, four more slave states joined the Confederacy, bringing their total to eleven. The Union soon controlled the border states and established a naval blockadethat crippled the southern economy. The Eastern Theater was inconclusive in 1861–62. The autumn 1862 Confederate campaign into Maryland (a Union state) ended with Confederate retreat at the Battle of Antietam, dissuading British intervention. Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which made ending slavery a war goal. To the west, by summer 1862 the Union destroyed the Confederate river navy, then much of their western armies, and the Union siege of Vicksburg split the Confederacy in two at the Mississippi River. In 1863, Robert E. Lee'sConfederate incursion north ended at the Battle of Gettysburg. Western successes led to Ulysses S. Grant's command of all Union armies in 1864. In the Western Theater, William T. Shermandrove east to capture Atlanta and marched to the sea, destroying Confederate infrastructure along the way. The Union marshaled the resources and manpower to attack the Confederacy from all directions, and could afford to fight battles of attrition through the Overland Campaigntowards Richmond, the Confederate capital. The defending Confederate army failed, leading to Lee's surrender to Grant at Appomattox Court House on April 9, 1865. All Confederate generals surrendered by that summer.
The American Civil War was one of the earliest true industrial wars. Railroads, the telegraph, steamships, and mass-produced weapons were employed extensively. The mobilization of civilian factories, mines, shipyards, banks, transportation and food supplies all foreshadowed World War I. It remains the deadliest war in American history, resulting in the deaths of an estimated 750,000 soldiers and an undetermined number of civilian casualties.[N 2] Historian John Huddleston estimates the death toll at ten percent of all Northern males 20–45 years old, and 30 percent of all Southern white males aged 18–40.
The American Civil War (1861–1865) Causes The Civil War was far too large to blame on a few simple factors. Leading to the causes of the war were a number of factors, one of the largest being slavery. Yet slavery cannot be blamed for it either. States Rights were the direct cause of the war, the secession of states, and the direct start of gunfire at Fort Sumter. At the beginning of 1860, over four million men, women, and children, one out of every seven people in the United States were slaves. The slaves of the southern plantations were frequently abused and overworked for the benefit of the plantation owner. Slaves remained in demand due to the increased productivity introduced by the cotton gin. Due to this increased demand, the number of slaves dramatically increased. Although the number of slaves in the south greatly outnumbered that of slave owners, the imbalance was maintained by harsh working conditions, and poverty stricken living environments. Slaves were frequently beaten, and neglected, often infected and died of dysentery, worms, and other diseases spurred by unsanitary living conditions. In certain circumstances, slaves were treated with occasional dignity by their owners, but for the most part they were neglected and treated with severe harshness. The south feared that the north would abolish slavery, and the north was afraid it would spread westward into the newly established states. Soon, anti-slavery leaders were becoming active and loud. John Brown, with his militaristic abolitionist views started a small revolt in Harpers Ferry, where he was soon tried and hanged for treason. Although a failure throughout life, his success was in his dying cause that sparked new disturbance, and violence over slavery. Others with Brown's cause took up the torch, and lit the fire for a country split. During the mid eighteen hundreds, the United States government took up an aggressive plan to industrialize the nation, and created numerous government sponsored programs. Although good in intentions, this gave rise to a number of new problems in the government. These programs frequently infringed upon the rights of the State in which the conducted. Thus this new industrialization was quickly rejected by those unfavorable to the new federalization. Understandably, this program can be interpreted as an unmistakably terrible program. If given unchecked expansion, this could lead to an all powerful dictatorship, limiting any democratic intervention at all. Thus, the country was split over a number of reasons, but most of all slavery and state's rights, and thus a country was split, and a war for the Union began. Secession of States Near the beginning of the war eleven states seceded and formed the Confederate States of America: Alabama Arkansas Florida Georgia Louisiana Mississippi North Carolina South Carolina Tennessee Texas Virginia Results Slavery effectively ended in the U.S. in the spring of 1865 when the Confederate armies surrendered. All slaves in the Confederacy were freed by the Emancipation Proclamation, which stipulated that slaves in Confederate-held areas were free. Slaves in the border states and Union-controlled parts of the South were freed by state action or (on December 6, 1865) by the Thirteenth Amendment. The full restoration of the Union was the work of a highly contentious postwar era known as Reconstruction. The war produced about 1,030,000 casualties (3% of the population), including about 620,000 soldier deaths—two-thirds by disease.  The war accounted for roughly as many American deaths as all American deaths in other U.S. wars combined.  The causes of the war, the reasons for its outcome, and even the name of the war itself are subjects of lingering contention today. About 4 million black slaves were freed in 1861–65. Based on 1860 census figures, 8% of all white males aged 13 to 43 died in the war, including 6% in the North and an extraordinary 18% in the South.  One reason for the high number of battle deaths during the war was the use of Napoleonic tactics such as charges. With the advent of more accurate rifled barrels, Minié balls and (near the end of the war for the Union army) repeating firearms such as the Spencer repeating rifle and a few experimental Gatling guns, soldiers were devastated when standing in lines in the open. This gave birth to trench warfare, a tactic heavily used during World War I. significance The triumph of the North, above and beyond its superior naval forces, numbers, and industrial and financial resources, was due in part to the statesmanship of Lincoln, who by 1864 had become a masterful war leader, to the pervading valour of Federal soldiers, and to the increasing skill of their officers. The victory can also be attributed in part to failures of Confederate transportation, matériel, and political leadership.
The Civil War is only one intestine war in the US.
Before 1861 The Civil War began. The most popular antislavery statement of the period was a novel published in 1852 by Harriet Beecher called” Uncle Tom’s cabin” Many northerners understood the evils of slavery for the 1st time. But southerners could not comprehend and thought that was a book insulting lies. Then Northern abolished the slavery. Southern supporters of slavery called for the secession. In early February 1861, there they created a new nation, the Confederate State of America, also called the Confederacy. Jefferson Davis of Mississippi was elected its president first and only. The Confederacy advocated the slavery and seceded the Union govern. That the cause of the big war.
When the confederacy hasn’t established, Federal government was denied the powers of States’ right. Principle of the two government has own powers.
The North was becoming more urban, the industrial was much better than the south. In 1860, the North had 110000 factories compared to 20000 in the South. And produced more than 1.6 billion dollars contrasted to the South’s 155 million dollars. The North’s population was more than twice as excessive as the South’s.
South’s advantages were leaderships. The president Jeffersen Davids and General Lee were participated in Mexican war and had much experience on making tactics. And the military tactics were made very sufficient for the significant war. They were supported by their citizens. Many Southerners were eager to fight, contemplating the war a struggle for their way of life. Also, women on both sides contributed to the war efforts by sewing uniforms and other supplies.
The Union’s general Winfield Scott’s strategies that choke off the Confederacy with blockade and to use troops and gunboats to gain control of the Mississippi river, thus cutting the Confederate army route.
The Confederate president Davis proposed Southerners counted on their forces on being able to turn back Union attacks until Northerners lost the will to fight.
Confederate government had to persuade individual citizens to sacrifice their personal invests for the common community. Their resource was couldn’t retain and bring their soldiers’ gospel. So they attempted to let England and France support them to independence and the illegal slavery extremely. But they failed. Both of France and Great Britain had obeyed abolition. The government of England, their opinion about adopting a wait and see attitude so the Southerners would have to prove themselves for the sake of British recourses.
The cruel war thus worsened economics. Because all of supplies were provided to the army. The women lived up to survive. So they had to loot bakeries and other shops in April 1863. The worse incogitable and unparalleled inflation had occurred.
Union government focused on raising troops and uniting the nation. They not only againsted the Confederacy but also protest Great Britain to intervene the Civil War. They had to pay Britain $19 billion compensation to solicit from preventing Britain's support. This measure made Britain embarrassed and hesitant.
After some battles. Lincoln declared his target wasn’t neither to save slavery nor to destroy slavery. His ultimate intention was that to preserve and protect the Union and the entire continent. Afterwards he proclaimed the Emancipation Proclamation to citizens. In other ways that also could inspirit soldiers to spontaneous and energetic to fight for the peace.
The Battle of Antietam fought on September 17, 1862. It happened place on Northern soil. It was the bloodiest battle in American history, with almost 23000 casualties. Attacks and counterattacks were very frequently. McClellan's attacks failed to achieve concentration of mass, allowing Lee to counter by shifting forces along interior lines to meet each challenge. Despite ample reserve forces that could have been deployed to exploit localized successes, McClellan failed to destroy Lee's army. Nevertheless, Lee's invasion of Maryland was ended, and he was able to withdraw his army back to Virginia without interference from the cautious McClellan. Although the battle was tactically inconclusive, it had unique significance as enough of a victory to give President Abraham Lincoln the confidence to announce his Emancipation Proclamation.
The First Battle of Bull Run, also known as the First Battle of Manassas was the first major land battle of the American Civil War, fought on July 21, 1861, near Manassas, Virginia. Unseasoned Union Army troops under Brig. Gen. Irvin McDowell advanced across Bull Run against the equally unseasoned Confederate Army under Brig. Gens. Joseph E. Johnston and P.G.T. Beauregard, and despite the Union's early successes, they were routed and forced to retreat back to Washington, D.C.
After Lee surrendered to Grant at Appomattox Court House .Confederate soldiers forfeited their confidences because of the great number of loss and lacked of supplies. Afterwards General Johnston surrendered to Sherman in North Carolina. Throughout Confederate forces also gave up. Both the North and the South had suffered great losses during the war, but both also gained by it. They gained a whole, fair nation. But the bad news also came, Lincoln was assassinated. Afterward Americans they are united and already to reconstruct. The united Americans will move on for eon.